ampere is used, so as when the batteries charged quickly and cutoff from the solar panels the solar panels still generates energy or output power which gets wasted.
The circuit shown here will safe the solar energy from waste by automatically shifting the charging to the second battery when the first one is fully charged and after the second battery is full charged it will get shifted to the third and so on. There are four separate 12V lead acid batteries are used here. The circuit can be used to charge just about any AH batteries.
The amperes going to the battery depends on the output of the solar panels. For example if you want to charge 7AH batteries then use 1000mA output solar panels, if you want to charge 100AH batteries use 10A output current solar panels and for 200AH use 20AH output current solar panels. The output voltage of solar panels should be any from 18V to 24V in all conditions. The LED1 to LED4 shows the charging status / battery under charge. All the BUZ11 mosfets should use a proper heatsink.
After the circuit completely built it requires some simple adjustments for the first time, this can be done by using an adjustable power supply to set the trip point of the charger circuit. For doing so first disconnect the solar panel and batteries from the circuit and set 15V in the adjustable power supply, then connect the LED and resistor as shown in the circuit named test LED & test resistor and disconnect the pin16 of the 4017 IC from the positive rail till the adjustments are done. Now slightly adjust the trip point variable resistor until the test LED goes on. Then decrease the voltage of the adjustable power supply to some volts and again set it on 15V, doing this will make the test LED goes off and on again on 15V, this shows that the charger circuit is now adjusted for charging. After these settings disconnect the adjustable power supply, test LED and test Resistor from the circuit and reconnect the solar panels, batteries to the circuit and reconnect pin16 of the 4017 IC to the positive rail. After these adjustments the circuit will be ready to use.
Solar panels are good source of free energy, solar systems are usually used to charge 12V high ampere batteries, some days the batteries get full day to charge and some days they are charged in a very short time period, this charge time period totally depends on the usage of batteries or how much
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