thermistor is used in the circuit that should be attached to the body of the battery in use.

Before attaching it to the battery the circuit requires some calibration for the first time. For doing so check the max temperature of the battery in its datasheet and adjust the 20K variable resistor to switch off the 3V relay switch used in the circuit before the battery will reach to its max temperature.

Working of the circuit is as follow:
By pressing S1 the circuit will connect the battery to the load, now if the battery will become overheat or its temperature rises above the preset level set by the 20K variable resistor, the output of 7555 IC gets low due to which the relay switch will become deactivated and disconnects the battery from the load. 
 

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This circuit automatically disconnects the battery with any load connected to the battery when it gets overheat or over temperature. This circuit can be used with any type of battery for example it can be used with lithium based batteries.
For sensing the temperature an NTC
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Automatic Battery Overheat Disconnect Circuit Diagram